William D. Nordhaus , a Sterling Professor of Economics at Yale University , analyzes the DICE model (Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy) in order to determine the uncertainties and known benefits of several climate change policy approaches, including "no controls, economic optimization, geoengineering , stabilization of emission and climate, and a ten-year delay in undertaking climate change policies" (Nordhaus 1994). He uncovered that climate change is inevitable due to the increasing buildup of greenhouse gas emissions, yet can be slowed with efficient policy, in place of no controls or a ten-year delay (Nordhaus 1994). Efficient policy will reap economic benefits in comparison to no or little policy action (Nordhaus 1994).
Peter Townsend transformed the conception of poverty, viewing it not simply as lack of income but as the configuration of the economic conditions that prevent people from being full members of the society (Townsend, 1979;  Ferragina et al. 2016  ). Poverty reduces the ability of people to participate in society, effectively denying them full citizenship (as suggested by . Marshall ). Given that there are no universal principles by which to determine the minimum threshold of participation equating to full membership of society, Townsend argued that the appropriate measure would necessarily be relative to any particular cultural context. He suggested that in each society there should be an empirically determinable 'breakpoint' within the income distribution below which participation of individuals collapses, providing a scientific basis for fixing a poverty line and determining the extent of poverty (Ferragina et al. 2016  ).