While the impact of these incidents is broadly felt, officers in larger departments are far more likely than those in small agencies to say these incidents have had an impact. For example, roughly half of officers (54%) in departments with fewer than 300 officers say their peers have become less willing to stop and question people who seem suspicious. By contrast, fully 86% of police in departments with 2,600 officers or more say fellow officers are now more hesitant to question people who look or act suspicious. Similarly, roughly nine-in-ten officers (87%) in the largest departments say that police interactions with blacks have become more tense; 61% of officers in small departments agree.
Though not the first police officer to write procedurals, Joseph Wambaugh 's success has caused him to become the exemplar of cops who turn their professional experiences into fiction. The son of a Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania , policeman, Wambaugh joined the Los Angeles Police Department after a stint of military duty. In 1970, his first novel, The New Centurions , was published. This followed three police officers through their training in the Academy, their first few years on the street, culminating in the Watts riots of 1965. It was followed by such novels as The Blue Knight , 1971, The Choirboys , 1975, Hollywood Station , 2006, and acclaimed non-fiction books like The Onion Field , 1973, Lines and Shadows , 1984, and Fire Lover , 2002. Wambaugh has said that his main purpose is less to show how cops work on the job, than how the job works on cops.