In typical enzyme-catalyzed reactions, reactant and product concentrations are usually hundreds or thousands of times greater than the enzyme concentration. Consequently, each enzyme molecule catalyzes the conversion to product of many reactant molecules. In biochemical reactions, reactants are commonly known as substrates. The catalytic event that converts substrate to product involves the formation of a transition state, and it occurs most easily at a specific binding site on the enzyme. This site, called the catalytic site of the enzyme, has been evolutionarily structured to provide specific, high-affinity binding of substrate(s) and to provide an environment that favors the catalytic events. The complex that forms, when substrate(s) and enzyme combine, is called the enzyme substrate (ES) complex. Reaction products arise when the ES complex breaks down releasing free enzyme.
The law of mass action forms the basis of the compartmental model of disease spread in mathematical epidemiology, in which a population of humans, animals or other individuals is divided into categories of susceptible, infected, and recovered (immune). The SIR model is a useful abstraction of disease dynamics which applies well to many disease systems and provides useful outcomes in many circumstances when the Mass Action Principle applies. Individuals in human or animal populations - unlike molecules in an ideal solution - do not mix homogeneously. There are some disease examples in which this non-homogeneity is great enough such that the outputs of the SIR model are invalid. For these situations in which the assumptions of mass action do not apply, more sophisticated graph theory models may be useful. For more information, see Compartmental models in epidemiology .
Oliver worked briefly as a dance critic, and later wrote her dissertation on the teaching of dance criticism at the college level. She has edited three books, and has published dance articles in a variety of books and journals, including the Journal of Dance in Education; Dance Research Journal; and the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance . She is an editorial board member for the Journal of Dance in Education and has served on the board for the Congress on Research for Dance. She also served as director of publications for the National Dance Association and is co-coordinator of the Rhode Island Arts Proficiencies in Dance.