Just because a country has an absolute advantage in an industry doesn't mean that it will be its comparative advantage. That depends on what the trading opportunity costs are. Say its neighbor has no oil but lots of farmland and fresh water. The neighbor is willing to trade a lot of food in exchange for oil. Now the first country has a comparative advantage in oil. It can get more food from its neighbor by trading it for oil than it could produce on its own. (Sources: " Absolute Advantage ," Lexicon. " Comparative Advantage and Absolute Advantage ," . " Absolute Advantage in Trade ," .