The four principal functions of management including planning, coordinating, organizing, and leading can effectively assist an organization to select the right goals, maximize available resources, and achieve set goals. McDonald’s has successfully managed to ensure effective and efficient performance through the four principal functions. I agree with how the company current implements the planning, controlling, and organizing activities because they help the company improve employees’ motivation and customer satisfaction. The organization’s planning strategies, which rely on a decentralized decision making system, encourages more people to participate. This ensures that all franchisees are aware of the company goals and fully understand them. I also believe it is easier for the company to ensure employees maintain the same quality standards because organizing and controlling management functions focus on building an effective organizational culture in all franchises.,. However, the company can improve its strategies on leading to enhance its openness. Currently, the function emphasizes on ensuring the employees follow the laid down policies and rules, which discourage creativity and lower employee motivation. Therefore, I recommend that McDonald’s maintains its current policies on planning, organizing, and controlling, but improve its policies on leading. This can be achieved by making franchisees more independent, which will enhance the ability of the employees in each franchise to come up with ways to meet needs and demand of respective markets.
Many primitive forms of money were counted just like coins. Cowrie shells, obtained from some islands in the Indian Ocean, were a very widely used primitive form of money - in fact they were still in use in some parts of the world (such as Nigeria) within living memory. "So important a role did the cowrie play as money in ancient China that its pictograph was adopted in their written language for money ." (page 36) Thus it is not surprising that among the earliest countable metallic money or "coins" were "cowries" made of bronze or copper, in China.