During this festival the king would make a ceremonial precession from Karnak along the avenue of Sphinxs to the temple of Luxor, located 2 miles away. The king would make his way to one of the innermost chambers of the temple. There, the king and his divine essence (called the ka , and created at his birth), were united and the king transformed into a divine being. The crowd, waiting anxiously, their belly’s full of bread and beer provided by the king for the rite, would cheer wildly upon the king’s emergence as the transformed or transfigured god-man.
During the Byzantine era, Jerusalem was primarily Christian and pilgrims came by the tens of thousands to experience the places where Jesus walked. [ citation needed ] After the Persian invasion in 614 many churches were razed and the site was turned into a dumpyard. The Arabs conquered the city from the Byzantine Empire which had retaken it in 629. The Byzantine ban on the Jews was lifted and they were allowed to live inside the city and visit the places of worship. Christian pilgrims were able to come and experience the Temple Mount area.  The war between Seljuqs and Byzantine Empire and increasing Muslim violence against Christian pilgrims to Jerusalem instigated the Crusades . The Crusaders captured Jerusalem in 1099 and the Dome of the Rock was given to the Augustinians , who turned it into a church, and the Al-Aqsa Mosque became the royal palace of Baldwin I of Jerusalem in 1104. The Knights Templar , who believed the Dome of the Rock was the site of the Solomon's Temple , gave it the name " Templum Domini " and set up their headquarters in the Al-Aqsa Mosque adjacent to the Dome for much of the 12th century. [ citation needed ]