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With an emphasis on the word "favor," her response is likely to be for  the President's missile defense system. With an emphasis, instead, on the word "effectively," her remark is likely to be against the President's missile defense system. And by using neither emphasis, she can later claim that her response was on either side of the issue. For an example of the Fallacy of Accent involving the accent of a syllable within a single word, consider the word "invalid" in the sentence, "Did you mean the invalid one?" When we accent the first syllable, we are speaking of a sick person, but when we accent the second syllable, we are speaking of an argument failing to meet the deductive standard of being valid. By not supplying the accent, and not supplying additional information to help us disambiguate, then we are committing the Fallacy of Accent.

Around 1960, Ray Solomonoff founded the theory of universal inductive inference , the theory of prediction based on observations; for example, predicting the next symbol based upon a given series of symbols. This is a formal inductive framework that combines algorithmic information theory with the Bayesian framework. Universal inductive inference is based on solid philosophical foundations, [17] and can be considered as a mathematically formalized Occam's razor . Fundamental ingredients of the theory are the concepts of algorithmic probability and Kolmogorov complexity .

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