Sexual activity of kangaroos consists of consort pairs .  Oestrous females roam widely and attract the attention of males with conspicuous signals.  A male will monitor a female and follow her every movement. He sniffs her urine to see if she is in oestrus, a process exhibiting the flehmen response . The male will then proceed to approach her slowly to avoid alarming her.  If the female does not run away, the male will continue by licking, pawing, and scratching her, and copulation will follow.  After copulation is over, the male will move on to another female. Consort pairing may take several days and the copulation is also long. Thus, a consort pair is likely to attract the attention of a rival male.  As larger males are tending bonds with females near oestrus, smaller males will tend to females that are farther from oestrus.  Dominant males can avoid having to sort through females to determine their reproductive status by searching for tending bonds held by the largest male they can displace without a fight.